French by birth and upbringing, Roussel moved to London after his first marriage in 1870. He was a close friend and pupil of Whistler and shared his love of Japanese art, evident here not only in the elegant kimono, casually draped over the folding chair, but in the overall treatment of space. The young girl is Hetty Pettigrew (1867-1953) who was the artist's favourite model and also posed, along with her sisters Rose and Lily, for Millais and Whistler. She met Roussel in 1884 and not only became his mistress but gave birth to his daughter. She continued to sit for him until he re-married in 1914.
In its frank nudity, flattening of forms and strong light-dark contrasts, The Reading Girlpays tribute to Edouard Manet's (1832-83) boldly subversive masterpiece, Olympia of 1863. But Roussel combines Manet's modernism with careful draughtsmanship and a more traditional classicism that looks back to J.A.D. Ingres (1780-1867). On the other hand, the subject is not presented as a classical Venus, but rather as a robust and healthy young woman, with a taste for current fashion. The discarded kimono, the model's elegant hairstyle and the folding campaign chair, are evidence of aesthetic preoccupations which align Roussel with such artists as Sir Frederic Leighton and the English Aesthetic movement. The critic Frederick Wedmore was impressed by the model's firm and youthful figure and compared the picture with 'the most health-suggesting, health-breathing of Courbets, with the most rosily robust of Caro Delvaille's (Le Sommeil fleuri), with the dreamiest Henner, with the slimmest and least material of Raphael Collin's (Floréal)' (Frederick Wedmore, 'Théodore Roussel', The Art Journal, 1909, p.184).
During the 1880s British art was moving away from an elevated, Neo-Classical interpretation of the nude towards a new naturalism, regarded as a threat to moral standards. Roussel's picture was exhibited at the New English Art Club in April 1887 and caused a mild scandal. The critic for theSpectator wrote: 'Our imagination fails to conceive any adequate reason for a picture of this sort. It is realism of the worst kind, the artist's eye seeing only the vulgar outside of his model, and reproducing that callously and brutally. No human being, we should imagine, could take any pleasure in such a picture as this; it is a degradation of Art' (Spectator, 16 April 1887).
Further reading: Kenneth McConkey, British Impressionism, London 1989, p.57, reproduced p.50, in colour.
Girl with the Red Hat is one of Johannes Vermeer’s smallest works, and it is painted on panel rather than on his customary canvas. The girl has turned in her chair and interacts with the viewer through her direct gaze. Girl with the Red Hat is portrayed with unusual spontaneity and informality. The artist’s exquisite use of color is this painting’s most striking characteristic, for both its compositional and its psychological effects. Vermeer concentrated the two major colors in two distinct areas: a vibrant red for the hat and a sumptuous blue for the robe; he then used the intensity of the white cravat to unify the whole.
Following in his father’s footsteps, Vermeer also was an art dealer in Delft. There is no documentation of his artistic training or apprenticeship, but in 1653 he became a master in the Saint Luke’s Guild in Delft; he would serve as head of that guild four times in the 1660s and 1670s. Although he was well regarded in his lifetime, he was heavily in debt when he died in 1675. Only in the late nineteenth century did Vermeer achieve widespread fame for his intimate genre scenes and quiet cityscapes.
It’s 2017 and computer graphics have conquered the Uncanny Valley, that strange place where things are almost real... but not quite. After decades of innovation, we’re at the point where we can conjure just about anything with software. The battle for photoreal CGI has been won, so the question is... what happens now?
Written and animated by Alan Warburton with the support of Tom Pounder and Wieden + Kennedy. Music by Cool 3D World (http://cool3dworld.com/) Special thanks to: Leanne Redfern, Nico Engelbrecht, Iain Tait, Indiana Matine, Katrina Sluis, David Surman, Jacob Gaboury and Daniel Rourke.
Animated backgrounds generously provided by:
• Quixel (https://quixel.se/) • Katarina Markovic (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCcr4QTtAK9N96pf_Z_zVqWg) • Roman Senko (https://vimeo.com/rendan)
Featuring work by:
• Al and Al (http://www.alandal.co.uk/) • Albert Omoss (http://omoss.io/) • Alex McLeod (http://www.alxclub.com/) • Barry Doupe (http://www.barrydoupe.ca/) • Claudia Hart (http://www.claudiahart.com/) • Cool 3D World (http://cool3dworld.com/) • Dave Fothergill (https://vimeo.com/davefothergillvfx) • Dave Stewart (https://vimeo.com/davegrafix) • Drages Animation (https://www.youtube.com/user/drakhean) • El Popo Sangre (https://vimeo.com/elpoposangre) • Eva Papamargariti (http://evapapamargariti.tumblr.com/) • Filip Tarczewski (https://vimeo.com/ftarczewski) • Geoffrey Lillemon (http://www.geoffreylillemon.com/website/) • Jacolby Satterwhite (http://jacolby.com/home.html) • Jesse Kanda (http://www.jessekanda.com/) • John Butler (https://vimeo.com/user3946359) • Jonathan Monaghan (http://jonmonaghan.com/) • Jun Seo Hahm (https://vimeo.com/junseohahm) • Kathleen Daniel (http://www.duh-real.com/) • Katie Torn (http://katietorn.com/index.html) • Kim Laughton (http://kimlaughton.tumblr.com/) • Kouhei Nakama (http://kouheinakama.com/) • LuYang (http://luyang.asia/) • Mike Pelletier (http://mikepelletier.net/) • Nic Hamilton (https://nichamilton.info/) • Pussykrew (http://hybrid-universe-emulation.net/) • Rick Silva (http://ricksilva.net/) • Sanatorios (https://www.instagram.com/sanatorios/)
J.M.W. Turner - The Wreck of a Transport Ship (c.1810)
Esta é uma das muitas tragédias marítimas que William Turner retratou ao longo da sua carreira. Pensaram tratar-se do naufrágio do barco Minotauro que ocorreu no final de 1810, mas comprovou-se que existiam esboços desta obra datados de 1806 e que a sua venda ao conde de Yarborough se deu antes daquele desastre que tanta impressão causou na imaginação popular. Este óleo de grandes dimensões traduz a transição do melhor naturalismo inglês para o romantismo de que Turner, também considerado precursor do impressionismo, é figura de proa.
Arte Num Minuto é um programa de Sofia Leite (RTP - Rádio Televisão Portuguesa) por ocasião da comemoração dos 60 anos da Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian
Kazimir Malevich - Suprematist Composition: White on White (1918)
Malevich described his aesthetic theory, known as Suprematism, as "the supremacy of pure feeling or perception in the pictorial arts." He viewed the Russian Revolution as having paved the way for a new society in which materialism would eventually lead to spiritual freedom. This austere painting counts among the most radical paintings of its day, yet it is not impersonal; the trace of the artist's hand is visible in the texture of the paint and the subtle variations of white. The imprecise outlines of the asymmetrical square generate a feeling of infinite space rather than definite borders.
So-called "white paintings" are in museums all across the world and Robert Ryman's all-white painting "Bridge" sold for a record $20.6 million at a Christie's auction in 2015. How are these seemingly plain white paintings considered art and why is it that not anyone can pick up a tube of white paint and make one? We talk to Elisabeth Sherman, an assistant curator at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York about why there is much more to these paintings than meets the eye, and while you could have painted on of these priceless pieces of art, you didn't.
Written in between 1979 and 1982 and printed in 2010, Jenny Holzer’s “Inflammatory Essays” employ her so-called “truisms," gleaned from popular ideas and ideologies. Rather than being projected in public spaces or casting them aglow in LED, here sentences form individual “essays.” Originally pasted around New York City, many of the texts reveal the polemical tone of manifestos, as they are oftentimes excerpted from speeches. Posted anonymously, the texts become relatively open signs, applicable to several situations. Holzer insists that the reader consider the texts and slogans with which we are inundated.